Solar thermal water production process (ระบบ ผลิต น้ำ ร้อน พลังงาน แสงอาทิตย์, which is term in thai), also known as solar thermal energy, is the process of using the sun’s energy to heat water for various uses such as domestic hot water, space heating, and industrial processes.
The basic process involves the use of solar collectors, which are devices that absorb the sun’s energy and convert it into heat. The most common type of solar collector used for water heating is the flat-plate collector, which typically consists of a dark absorber plate, a transparent cover, and insulation on the back. The absorber plate is coated with a material that absorbs solar radiation, and the cover is typically made of glass or plastic to allow sunlight to pass through while trapping the heat.
The solar collectors are typically mounted on a south-facing rooftop or on a ground-mounted rack, and are connected to a storage tank or a system of pipes that circulate a heat-transfer fluid, such as water or a mixture of water and antifreeze, through the collectors. The heat-transfer fluid absorbs the heat from the collectors and transfers it to the water in the storage tank or the pipes.
The storage tank is typically insulated to reduce heat loss and is equipped with a thermostat or a control system to regulate the temperature of the water. In a typical solar thermal water heating system, the water in the storage tank is heated to a temperature of around 60-70°C (140-160°F) during the day, and the heat is then used to meet the hot water needs of the building.
In addition to the basic components of a solar thermal water heating system, there are also various accessories and options that can be added to the system to improve its performance and efficiency. For example, a pump can be used to circulate the heat-transfer fluid through the collectors and the storage tank, and a controller can be used to regulate the operation of the system.
Another option is the use of evacuated tube collectors which are more efficient than flat plate collectors. They consist of a series of glass tubes, each containing a metal absorber and an insulated vacuum space. The vacuum provides excellent insulation, reducing heat loss and increasing the efficiency of the collector.
There are also hybrid systems that combine solar thermal water heating with other forms of heating, such as electric or gas-fired water heaters, to provide hot water even on cloudy days or during periods of high demand.
In addition to providing hot water for domestic use, solar thermal energy can also be used for other applications such as space heating and industrial processes. For example, it can be used to heat water for swimming pools or to provide process heat for industries such as food processing or textile manufacturing.
Solar thermal water production process is a clean and renewable energy source, and it can also be cost-effective, especially when compared to conventional fossil fuel-based water heating systems. It can also help to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and dependence on non-renewable energy sources.
However, the efficiency of a solar thermal water heating system depends on various factors such as the type and quality of the solar collectors, the orientation and tilt of the collectors, the amount of sunlight available, and the size and insulation of the storage tank. Therefore, it is important to carefully design and size a solar thermal water heating system to ensure that it meets the hot water needs of the building and that it is as efficient as possible.
In conclusion, solar thermal water production is a sustainable and cost-effective way to produce hot water. It involves the use of solar collectors to absorb the sun’s energy and convert it into heat, which is then used to heat water for various uses. The basic components of a solar thermal water heating system include solar collectors, a storage tank, and a system of pipes.